Bocains et Plainauds en Bas-Poitou au XVIIIe siècle / Alain Gérard ; sous la direction de Jean Tarrade

Date :

Editeur / Publisher : [Lieu de publication inconnu] : [Éditeur inconnu] , 1987

Type : Livre / Book

Type : Thèse / Thesis

Langue / Language : français / French

Catalogue Worldcat

Tarrade, Jean (Directeur de thèse / thesis advisor)

Université de Poitiers (Organisme de soutenance / degree-grantor)

Résumé / Abstract : LE XVIIIE, DANS L'HISTORIOGRAPHIE VENDEENNE TRADITIONNELLE, NE S'ETUDIE QU'AU TRAVERS DES PASSIONS POSTERIEURES A LA REVOLUTION. LA RECHERCHE UNIVERSITAIRE RECENTE, PREOCCUPEE D'ANALYSES SOCIO-ECONOMIQUES, INTEGRE MAL LA DIMENSION RELIGIEUSE. DEUX SYSTEMES S'ETABLISSENT, AUX XVIIE ET XVIIIE SIECLES. LA PLAINE, CEREALIERE ET SOUS-PEUPLEE, EST DOMINEE PAR DES LABOUREURS, QUE LES PROGRES DE L'ALPHABETISATION GAGNENT AUX IDEES NOUVELLES. LE BOCAGE, MANUFACTURIER ET VENDEUR DE BOVINS, ABRITE UNE SOCIETE RELATIVEMENT HOMOGENE. LA COMMUNAUTE PAROISSIALE Y APPARAIT COMME LE CONSERVATOIRE DES VALEURS RURALES, AVEC LESQUELLES LE CATHOLICISME A SU ENTRER EN SYMBIOSE. LOCALEMENT OEUVRE DE BOURGEOIS QUI MONOPOLISENT LA PAROLE, INVESTISSENT LES POSTES DE COMMANDE, SURIMPOSENT LE BOCAGE ET ACCAPARENT LES BIENS NATIONAUX, LA REVOLUTION NEUTRALISE LA PLAINE, MAIS SE REVELE DE PLUS EN PLUS INCOMPATIBLE AVEC LA CULTURE BOCAINE. D'OU L'EXPLOSION DE 93. APRES LE DRAME, LA PLAINE S'INSTALLE DANS UN LENT DECLIN. TRAUMATISE, MARGINALISE, LE BOCAGE DE CLERICALISE ET CULTIVE LE SOUVENIR. NATALISTE, IL SE REPLIE SUR SES VALEURS RURALES, DERRIERE UNE STRUCTURE SOCIALE NEO-FEODALE. LA RUPTURE AVEC LE LEGITIMISME CONDUIT L'EGLISE A SUSCITER DE NOUVELLES ELITES QUI, POUR SAUVEGARDER CES VALEURS, ELABORENT UN MODELE ORIGINAL D'INDUSTRIALISATION RURALE.

Résumé / Abstract : THE XVIIITH CENTURY, IN TRADITIONAL VENDEAN HISTORIOGRAPHY CAN ONLY BE STUDIED WITH REGARD TO POST-REVOLUTIONARY CONVICTIONS. NOWADAYS UNIVERSITY RESEARCH, WHICH IS ABOVE ALL INTERESTED IN SOCIOECONOMICAL ANALYSES, DOES NOT DEAL TO A GREAT EXTENT WITH THE RELIGIOUS ASPECTS. TWO SYSTEMS EVOLVED IN THE XVIITH AND XVIIITH CENTURIES. THE PLAIN, AN AREA WHERE CEREALS WERE GROWN AND WHICH WAS ALSO UNDERPOPULATED, WAS DOMINATED BY FARMERS WHO ACQUIRED THE NEW IDEAS BY THE EXTINCTION OF ILLETERACY. THE BOCAGE, WITH ITS FACTORIES AND CATTLE BREEDERS, CONTAINED A RELATIVELY HOMOGENEOUS SOCIETY. THERE, THE PARISH COMMUNITY APPEARED TO BE THE BREEDING GROUND FOR RURAL VALUES WITH WHICH CATHOLICISM WAS IN AGREEMENT. THE REVOLUTION WHICH WAS, ON A LOCAL LEVEL, THE WORK OF THE BOURGEOISIE WHO HAD THE SAY ON POLITICAL MATTERS, HELD THE COMMANDING POSITIONS, OVERTAXED THE BOCAGE AND SECURED THE NATIONAL POSSESSIONS, RENDERED THE PLAIN POWERLESS BUT AT THE SAME IT REVEALED ITSELF TO BE MORE AND MORE INCOMPATIBLE WITH THE CULTURE OF THE BOCAGE. HENCE THE EXPLOSION OF'93. AFTER THE DRAMA, THE PLAIN SETTLED INTO A SLOW DECLINE. TRAUMATISED, MARGINALISED, THE BOCAGE BECAME CLERICAL AND CLUNG TO THE MEMORY. NATALIST, IT CHERISHED ITS RURAL VALUES, ITS NEO-FEODAL STRUCTURE. THE RUPTURE WITH LEGITIMISM LED THE CHURCH INTO BREEDING NEW ELITES WHO, IN ORDER TO SAFEGUARD THESE VALUES, BUILT AN ORIGINAL MODEL OF RURAL INDUSTRIALISATION.